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Science:科学支撑“一带一路”建设
来源:中国“一带一路”战略研究院 日期:2019-08-20 浏览次数: 字号:[ ]


近期,奥地利维也纳技术大学名誉教授,挪威国立科技大学副教授Manfred Horvat和清华大学地球系统科学系主任宫鹏教授共同在《science》发表社论“科学支撑‘一带一路’建设”。文章指出在“一带一路”合作进程中,中国的绿色发展理念和应对气候变化的政策发挥很重要的作用,可通过建立顶级的国际科学咨询委员会,在规划、实施、监测和评估“一带一路”项目过程中,指导整合世界上最好的科学能力,以促进全球繁荣的可持续。

2019年4月,第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛在北京举行,习近平主席在论坛上介绍了最新的情况。2018年中国与“一带一路”参与国家货物贸易进出口总额达到1.3万亿美元。这一大型陆地、海洋、数字工程旨在改善中国与亚洲、欧洲、非洲126个合作国家之间的经济、社会和自然环境,通过建设公路、铁路、信息技术网络、发电站、管道、机场和港口加强互联互通。习近平主席理解国际社会对“一带一路”项目建设所带来环境影响的担忧,中国正在着手解决这些问题。中国利用科学技术来推进“一带一路”建设,同样的,需要借助科学技术监测和减少“一带一路”项目对环境的影响。

科学研究表明,一带一路工程具有环境风险。从2014年到2017年,大部分的能源和运输项目都与碳密集型产业挂钩。道路建设造成的动物栖息地分裂和生物多样性破坏、货运造成的空气污染以及水力发电对水资源造成影响。

为应对这些挑战,中国制定了《“一带一路”生态环境保护合作规划》,发布了强调生态文明的《关于推进绿色“一带一路”建设的指导意见》,提出了中国绿色发展战略,并将一带一路的发展路径对准联合国可持续发展目标。中国发布了《民营企业境外投资经营行为规范》,但是如何实现这些规范,以及是否会推广至国有企业和银行尚未可知,中国须表现出将这些计划付诸实施的政治意愿。

解决跨越三大洲的环境问题需要科学的方案,任何一个国家单枪匹马都无法做到这点。在“一带一路”合作进程中,中国的绿色政策和应对气候变化的政策发挥很重要的作用。从习主席近期关于环境影响的讲话可知,中国在2016年实施“一带一路”科技合作行动计划的同时,应该平衡科技资源,以解决“一带一路”倡议中的环境问题。“一带一路”科技创新行动计划,旨在开展科技人文交流,共建联合实验室,推动科技基础设施之间的合作研究。然而,中国目前对于国际间的协同研究预算较低,对国内的外国研究人员有经费上的限制,其他国家限制环境问题上的广泛合作,这些壁垒必须被打破。

中国在计划和实施“一带一路”倡议的过程中,同全球科学界合作。中国科学院和西安交通大学共同建立了两大国际合作联盟,旨在支持科技合作和教育,但是解决“一带一路”倡议对环境的影响却不是其议程的重点。国家自然科学基金委员会同“一带一路”沿线国家和其他国家一道,共同开发“一带一路”资金支持框架。首批共同支持项目将注重“可持续发展”,同时呼吁解决“一带一路”倡议中环境问题的提议。国际组织也将对“一带一路”倡议有关的合作做出贡献。例如,世界自然基金会对环境的分析同样有帮助。中国同联合国一道提出的2019年“一带一路”绿色发展国际联盟,能够成为知识交流的平台。世界银行提出过减少“一带一路”环境影响措施的建议。欧盟—中国互联互通项目在其行动计划中,将支持绿色交通基础设施包含在内,但是仍需要从纸面落实到行动上。

“一带一路”倡议的实施和协作是复杂的。中国和“一带一路”成员要做到开放、包容,正如中国2015年的愿景与行动政策所强调的,应考虑建立顶级的国际科学咨询委员会,在规划、实施、监测和评估“一带一路”项目过程中,指导整合世界上最好的科学能力,以促进全球繁荣的可持续。

 

原文

Last month, at the Second Belt and Road Fo- rum for International Cooperation in Beijing, President Xi Jinping gave an update on China’s $US1.3 trillion Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This massive land, sea, and digital enterprise aims to create improved economic, social, and environmental conditions between China and 126 cooperating countries from Asia, Europe, and Africa through strengthened connectivity by constructing roads, railways, IT networks, power stations, pipelines, airports, and ports. President Xi acknowledged growing international concerns about environmental damage along the BRI. Now, China must commit to addressing these issues. China’s use of science and technology (S&T) as an instrument to build BRI relationships should likewise be used to examine and minimize the environmental impacts of BRI projects.

As scientific studies point out, BRI projects pose substantial environmental risks. From 2014 to 2017, most energy and transport projects were tied to carbon intensive sectors. Internationally, China continues to support coal plants. Other problems include habitat fragmentation and biodiversity destruction by road construction, air pollution from cargo shipping, and endangering water resources by hydropower.

In response to criticisms, China developed the 2017 Belt and Road (B&R) Ecological and Environmental Cooperation Plan; the Guidance on Promoting Green B&R, which highlights “ecological civilization”; China’s green development strategy; and BRI’s orientation toward achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Although environmental impact assessments are major requirements of China’s plan, implementation procedures do not yet exist. China even crafted a Code of Conduct for Overseas Investment and Management of Private Enterprises, but how such requirements are fulfilled and whether they will be extended to state-owned enterprises and banks are not clear. China must demonstrate the political will to put any of these plans into action.

Addressing environmental problems spanning three continents will require scientific solutions that cannot be provided by any nation alone. China’s green and climate-change policies can play an important role in collaborative BRI activities. Given President Xi’s recent acknowledgement of environmental impacts, China should leverage S&T resources to address the BRI’s environmental risks when implementing the 2016 BRI Special Plan for S&T Cooperation. This plan promotes people-to-people exchange, joint laboratories, and cooperative research between S&T infrastructures. However, the low budgets for international collaborative research and the restrictions on funding for foreign researchers in China and other countries limit broader cooperation that could focus on environmental issues. These barriers must be removed.

China should also involve the global scientific communities in planning and implementing the BRI. Two large international alliances were established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and by Xi’an Jiaotong University to support scientific cooperation and education, but addressing environmental impacts of BRI is not highlighted in their agendas. The National Natural Science Foundation of China is developing the B&R funding framework with BRI and other countries. The first joint funding program will be devoted to “sustainable development.” Calls for proposals should address BRI’s environmental problems too. International organizations can also contribute to BRI-relevant issues. For example, the World Wildlife Fund’s environmental analyses could be informative. The 2019 International Coalition for Green Development on the BRI, which was initiated by China and the United Nations, could be a platform for knowledge exchange. The World Bank suggested measures to reduce environmental impacts of BRI. The European Union–China Connectivity Platform includes fostering exchange on green transportation infrastructure in its Action Plan, but it needs to move from words to actions.

BRI implementation and coordination are complex tasks. If China and its BRI partners are truly committed to being open and inclusive, as highlighted in China’s 2015 “Visions and Action” policy, they should also consider establishing a top-level international scientific advisory board to guide the integration of the world’s best scientific capacities in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and assessment of BRI projects for global sustainable prosperity.

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